Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB), also known as greening disease, a prokaryotic disease, is one of the devastating diseases prevailing in citrus orchards all over the world. This disease has been extensively reviewed by many scientists. The epidemiological understanding of huanglongbing shows that pathogen co-evolved as insect endo-symbiont which later on also move to the plants. It is also known that disease vector can transmit it on a very long distance. On average, the disease can cause 30–100% in yield losses depending upon the severity of the disease. It takes 2–5 years for a tree to become unproductive from the first appearance of the symptoms and the total life span of the tree is reduced to 7–10 years.
The damage due to HLB is considerable. Almost 100 million trees have been affected and destroyed in many countries such as Africa, Asia, South America: Bangladesh, Belize, Bhutan, Brazil, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, China, Comoros, Cuba, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Honduras, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Iran, Jamaica, South Africa, Uganda, Uzbekistan, Thailand, United States of America, Vietnam, Yemen and Zimbabwe , compromising the local citriculture.
There is no exaggeration when HLB is described as the most important, severe, serious, destructive, devastating disease of citrus in the world. It has never been successfully eradicated -
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Other Scientific Names
•Candidatus Liberibacter africanus
•Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus
•Candidatus Liberobacter africanum
•citrus greening bacterium
•Liberibacter africanus subsp capensis
•Spanish: enverdecimiento de los cítricos
•French: greening; virescence des agrumes
•English: blotchy mottle disease of Citrus; greening,
Yellow dragon slayer
. Neutralizes the Huanglongbing bacteria
. on the trees including the roots
. Incorporates oxygen in the soil
. Does not use chemicals
. The system remains permanently on
site and can cover up to 500 acres.
. Time needed for iradication is 15 days
Yellow Dragon Slayer
Citrus greening, Yellow dragon disease
Citrus huanglongbing - greening disease
What kind of infection is it?
Both forms of HLB are associated with Grambacteria
that proliferate in the vascular system conveying the elaborated sap (primary phloem and liber). This translocation occurs in elongated nucleus-free cells in the form of tubes, equipped with sieves pores. This vascular
system feeds the biological active parts of the plant, especially buds, fruits and roots.On HLB affected tissues sieve pores plugging hinder sap transfer.
These bacteria were given the name Liberibacter because they are found in liber tissue. However, the isolation in pure culture of these organisms has not yet been achieved, although their 16S ribosomal DNA were recently
identified. They are thus classified in the alpha-proteobacteria group and named provisionally Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus and Candidatus Liberibacter africanus.
What is the relationship ‘host-plant, HLB agent, psyllid vector’?
For the psyllid vectors, the HLB organism which is part of the symbiontic flora in the digestive tract, is conveyed through the haemolymphand the salivary glands. The leaf sucking mouth part of the insect comprises a stylet which is used to pierce and suck the fluid from the leaf. The stylet has three fine threads sliding jerkily against each other for piercing the leaf tissue up to the phloem. Gustatory sensillas mediate acceptance or rejection of plant fluid thus playing a major role in locating tissue feeding.
PLEASE NOTE: The system is withdrawn from commercial markets until data collected over longer periods of time is acceptable.